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This week's Podcast is something a little different due to not having a guest (or WiFi) this week so I decided to go H.A.M on your questions and even let you know.

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He kept bragging about how much he knew about the WWE and I told him that his knowledge doesn't translate to physical skill. That conversation was taken out of context by the judges and the WWE Universe that I knew nothing and disrespected the business. So for those out there I am very knowledgable about the WWE and have a huge love for it. W: Yes, I understand what are you meaning. Anyway it is a reality and sometimes the cuts on the videos are decisive to create an opinion about the competitors, even in the Judges minds. Anyway you talked about physical skills. What do you think about ZZ?

Certainly he is a nice guy, funny, with a particular character and with a good comedy charisma. But it is difficult to compare him to you or the other guys, lilke Tanner, Josh, Patrick about physical skills and aerobic condition. According to you he belongs to this program? A: ZZ is a great kid but in terms of work ethic and wanting to be physically in shape to be a WWE Superstar he does not compare or want to be in the shape we all are to be successful in the business. A: Just partly, but not entirely. W: There is a guy you are closer than the other?

And, according to you, who will win this competition? A: Josh, Tanner and Mada, since we roomed together and spent a lot of time together. And Hank as well.

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They both have a fire that will be tough to burn out. W: I see. On the other hand, what are you plans for the future? Do you want to continue to try to become a Professional Wrestler? I would love to be in developmental to one day be a WWE Superstar. A: Thank you so much for having me!

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I appreciate all of the fans and followers to the WWE Universe. Please continue to follow me on my journey on Twitter ToughAlexF and also Periscope with the same handle for daily videos and chats. Always appreciate the fans, I answer everyone messages and Tweets because you all are very important part of why we are here! Thank YOU! In the end thank you Walter and thank you to Zonawrestling for this interview.

Zona Wrestling. This is usually written out. This general word list includes words commonly seen in genealogical sources. Numbers, months, and days of the week are listed both here and in separate sections that follow this list. In this list, optional versions of Italian words or variable endings such as some plural or feminine endings are given after a hyphen. Parentheses in the English column clarify the definition. In Italian, some words have both a male and female form, such as:. When a word has both a male and female version, this word list gives the feminine ending of words after a hyphen, such as:.

To request editing rights on the Wiki, click here. From FamilySearch Wiki. Italian Genealogical Word List. Genealogical Word Lists. Navigation menu Personal tools English. Namespaces Page Talk. Views Read View source View history. Research Wiki. This page was last edited on 7 November , at This page has been viewed 2, times 5 via redirect Content is available under Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike unless otherwise noted.

Downloadable Word List. PDF File. Handwriting Help. Associated Countries. Italy San Marino Slovenia. Switzerland Vatican City. To further explore this point let us analyze the comments expressed about them by the most critical of her biographers. First of all, in his book Vittorio Malamani speaks about "abridgements.

Particularly Malamani 49 seems to be certain of Cesarotti's presence in Renier's translations, which, he says, corrected them all and he goes so far as to suggest Renier didn't sign her work because "her conscience forbade her to sign works that were not completely her own. But Malamani's assumptions seem to be of particular interest when it comes to quoting a passage of Renier's preface; he says:.

For example, the page on which the author explains the reason for the work has a distinct Cesarotti flavor. Judge for yourself: 'Tenderness and admiration have always joined together the famous poet and the fair sex. Shakespeare loved it with enthusiasm, and Shakespeare could really feel the love he described so well'. As a matter of fact, Cesarotti was a friend of Renier. He was a scholar and read her translations, as is confirmed by their correspondence, but it does not mean he rewrote them.

Actually it was precisely Cesarotti who insisted, in one of his letters, to persuade Giustina Renier to change something in one of her translations, making it clear that she did not like to use someone else's material and trying to make her make an exception to this rule, which she actually did not do 7. But there is more evidence of Malamani's bias about her translations and it is his very aforementioned statement which points it out. Proceeding to a comparison of the quoted sentence of "Cesarotti flavor" with Le Tourneur's introduction to his French translations, it is quite embarrassing to note that Giustina Renier actually used the same words of the French translator.

It could be argued that Malamani's comment about Giustina Renier's translations was too superficial; his prejudice prevented him from an attentive analysis of the texts, if he had ever tried to do one. This is evident from the very beginning of his comment, where he talks about "abridgements," which is simply false.

In fact the analysis of the translated texts proves them to be translations and it is just the identification of the aforesaid sentence in the French and Italian text that shows quite clearly the translator's strategy in this matter. As for the alleged sentence of Cesarotti, Renier created a collage sort of preface.

Despite this evidence for the prosecution, it is still possible to acquit her, since intertwined with Le Tourneur words, her own words also emerge from the pages, the recollection of which gives us a sort of a map of her translation project, of what she intended to do in translating these particular plays. In the first of her own sentences she says: "It is hardly surprising, that a Lady, reading in the tranquillity of her chamber and reflecting on Shakespeare, inspired by noble enthusiasm and a deep feeling of gratitude, would thus embark on the translation of his works" Renier, 7 my translation.


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She refers to the surprising effect created by her translation, exactly what readers should have felt in reading a woman's work. She knows her work will be received at least with suspicion, so she tries to justify herself. A woman could read, and precisely the hours spent in reading, she explains, led her to finally translate.

She acknowledges the difficulty of what she is going to do and she apologizes again:. Soul and wit are perhaps more essential to the accurate transportation of sentiment and taste from one language to another than the ability to write philosophical works. A sprightly and animated style covers and even embellishes the faults; whereas a languid and cold one makes the grace itself vanish.

It is better to permit all the enthusiasm of the poets to affect the style even if slightly slovenly , than to give it a lifeless flavor as a concession to scrupulous accuracy. A cold translation, said the famous Brumuy, is like a wax portrait, it resembles, it is true, but everything is cold, everything is dead.

So he teaches us it is better to take the middle between excessively strict faithfulness which wears out, and excessive liberty which falsifies; most of all, it is necessary to strive to make the Authors speak in the language into which they are translated, as they would speak themselves, if they wanted to communicate their ideas in that language," Renier, 8. She proves to be knowledgeable about the topics under discussion at that time. In the perennial question of literal vs.

As a woman scholar and writer, she knows her opinion not to be held in great esteem on account of the bias usually attached to women, all the more reason not to express her point of view in the first person, but to quote a French scholar, Brumuy, relying on his authority. It being understood that this is a dilemma that has been discussed for ages by scholars and translators and that it is still in doubt what this should exactly mean, it proves at least that she did not translate without any knowledge of the theoretical problems at issue.

Particularly it could be noticed that what she said about "lifeless translation" echoed what Foscolo, a frequent guest at her literary salon, and Cesarotti were saying about translation at that time.

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I'll try, to the degree I'm able to, to follow these rules, and not to defraud my readers of some peculiar sentences, which, to comply with the spirit of our language , I have to leave out in translation, I'll quote them at the end of the Tragedy in the exact verbal version. Furthermore I will add some notes, for the most part made by Mr Le Tourneur, who, with great merit, translated all the literary works of Shakespeare into the French language, and who has provided me with nearly all the means to make this author better known in Italy," Renier, She admits the great difficulty of her work, and almost stimulating her readers' benevolence in saying she will try to do her best, she finally states exactly the strategy she adopted in translating: she tried to be "faithful" to the original, but she was sometimes obligated not to translate something, due to differences between English and Italian.

When that happened, she explained, she would report the eliminated sentences in a note, which she did. Moreover, she states that she added notes to the text, most of them taken from Le Tourneur, whose translations she says she herself used to make Shakespeare better known in Italy. As a matter of fact, even if the evidence of using French material could testify against her, she actually did exactly what she had stated in the preface she would do, use Le Tourneur's material and add her own considerations together with comments of other scholars.

In fact, as a woman translator, she knows she has to overcome the prejudice naturally attached to her work, so again she explains and gives reasons, this time stating clearly that what could be allowed to a man is not permitted to a woman. In her words, she says:. This may be the only topic a woman can discuss without fear of accusations by men. But I could not have done it justice without discussing what a lot of celebrated literary men had already written about it," Renier, She says she wrote a general introduction, with specific introductions to the individual plays, where she presents her personal thinking about them and the feelings they aroused, specifying that to talk about feelings was maybe the only thing allowed to a woman.

Later she adds that she could not have done it right without studying what scholars had written about them, pointing out her distressing situation. She states that she did not use only Le Tourneur's version, but in order to do a good job she studied what English scholars had written about them, as evidenced by the many quotations in her notes. It is important to point out again her emphasis on the efforts she made to do a good job. As a woman, she was not supposed to be a scholar, so that she finds herself in the very peculiar situation of excusing herself for having published something which she felt compelled to demonstrate she had the right to publish.

Having assured her readers of her having studied the author, she says she added her own comments to those of the English scholars. At this point, her translation strategy has been clearly stated, and her modus operandi appears to be demonstrated. What we need now is a clear indication of motives, an answer to one question: why did she decid to translate, and in fact she concludes by answering this question. She explains:. So the sensitive readers will bestow on me some indulgency, if not having a part in the education of my tender daughters, I prepare for them a reading, which can, whenever possible, give them joy and instruction, contributing to their happiness and moderating their growing passion with examples" Renier, What seems not to be a particularly remarkable statement reveals its importance at a closer reading.

It is not only her love for Shakespeare's plays that drove her to translation, but the concern for her daughters' education, particularly interesting because expressed by a woman. Due to the strict social habits of the time, she could not educate her daughters herself, 11 so she decided to overcome this obstacle by giving them something to read that could be amusing as well as educational.

As a matter of fact in view of this motive, it is possible to consider her complete work, her translation strategies, but most of all her selection of what to translate. Whether she translated from the French version, as alleged by some, or she merely used it as a useful tool for her work, as she stated, it is a fact that Le Tourneur translated the complete works of Shakespeare, while Giustina Renier translated only three plays, particularly the ones contained in Le Tourneur's first and third volume, excluding Julius Caesar and The Tempest.

Actually, considering her concern about her daughters' education, I cannot but connect such a selection with educational motives. Particularly, it is interesting to notice the presence in all these plays of very strong female characters. Desdemona in Othello is of course the victim, but she is also a protagonist during the play. She is young and beautiful but she is also very strong.

She knows what she wants and in order to get it she makes a choice. This choice will prove her to be strong, but at the same time will part her with her father protection and undermine his trust in her innocence. Lady Macbeth too is a very strong woman who chooses her destiny. She wants her husband to be king and in order to get what she wants she is ready to do anything.

Again her ruin is born exactly in the moment she makes her choice. Finally, as for Volumnia, an old woman this time and a mother, she wants her son to be consul but her choices will be finally the ruin not of herself, this time, but of her beloved Coriolanus.

Shakespeare in Italian

It is possible to assume, even by the order of the presentation of the plays, that Giustina Renier's main concern for education made her choose these particular plays, offering to young women the image of a woman's life, from youth till maturity. Particularly the image she offers is the one of very strong women, who possess such usually male qualities as courage and boldness, but whose decisions drive them to their ruin.

It is important to stress that the image she seems to propose is not different from the one offered by other women, like Mary Wollestonecraft, whose main concern was for women's education, too, and who did not offer a utopian rebellious woman as a model but rather a more cautious one, who has to choose wisely especially about a wedding, precondition to her subsistence. With her motives explained in the general preface, the reader can now understand better the individual prefaces to the plays and translations. As she said in the general introduction, she wrote a preface to every single play, quoting the Shakespearian source for Othello and Macbeth , first difference from Le Tourneur's version, who quoted Giraldi Cinthio only for the first one.

The individual prefaces are very interesting, since they reveal the translator's critical perspective and analysis of the plays which prompted her translation project. Furthermore, it is possible to read into these texts that sort of "finding a voice" process that has been talked about by many translators. In fact, if in the prefaces to Othello and Macbeth she still adheres to the French translator's considerations, mixed up with her owns, in Coriolanus she finally seems to have found her "voice," as it appears from both the preface and the translation.

The first sense of insecurity clearly visible in her adherence to the French translator in Othello , gave place to a sort of probation in Macbeth and finally totally disappears in Coriolanus , in a sort of materialization of that particular process described by many translators where a translator through the reading of his author starts to harmonize his peculiar tone with the one of his writer, to finally find his voice. Most of the preface turns out to be formed by other scholars' comments, while only the first and final comments are her own.

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It is remarkable to notice that her first personal consideration is about love. She insists on the importance of love and marriage but also on the necessity of moderation. If it is not possible and not advisable to eliminate love from life; the theatrical representation must teach us how control it. Her choice of words like "insegnare" to teach and "istruttivo" instructive Renier, 40 , referring to Othello's character, seems to show again her concern for education.

Her final remarks are also interesting. She ascribes her remarks to Le Tourneur, but actually there is no trace of such remarks in his volume of Particularly she seems to be concerned about the reception of this play by the Italian public. As I have already explained, Shakespeare was quite unknown in Italy at the time and to the degree he was known, it was from the critical comments by Voltaire.

Her last remark seems to be just a reflection of the Italian context and her worries about Voltaire's influence on it. In fact, after referring to Johnson's comment about the play, whose beauty goes beyond the critical analysis, she speaks about Voltaire.